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八年级下册英语知识点总结

 二维码 14

八年级下册英语知识点总结

Unti1 what’s the matter?

短语归纳

1.too much 太多                       2.lie down 躺下  

3.get an X-ray   做个X光检查           4.take one ’s temperature 量体温  

5.put some medicine on ......在....上敷药   6.have a fever 发烧

7.take breaks /take a break 休息         8.without thinking twice 没多想

9.get off 下车                          10.take sb to the hospital 送某人去医院

11.wait for等待                        12.to one’s surprise 使.......惊讶的

13.thanks to多亏于;由于               14.in time及时

15.think about 考虑                    16.have a heart problem患有心脏病  

17.get into the trouble 遇到麻烦         18.do the right thing做正确的事情事情

19.fall down 摔倒                     20.put ...... on sth把...放在某物上

21.get hit/sunburned 摔伤/烧伤         22.be interested in 对.....感兴趣

23.be used to 习惯于....                 24.take risks/take a risk 挑战

25.lose one’s life 失去生命              26.because of 因为

27.run out of 用完                     28.cut off 切除

29.get out of 从...出来                  30.make a decision/decisions 做决定

31.be in control of 掌管;管理         

用法归纳

1.need to do sth .需要去做某事                2.see sb doing sth 看见某人正在做某事

3.ask sb sth 询问某人某事                    4.expect sb to do sth 期望某人做某事

5.agree to do sth 想要做某事                  6.help sb (to) do sth 帮助某人做某事

7.want to do sth 想要做某事                  8.tell sb to do sth 告诉某人做某事

9.have problems/trouble (in) doing sth 做某事有困难    10.use sth to do sth用某物去做某事

11.be/get used to doing sth 习惯于做某事       12.seem to do sth 好像做某事

13.keep on doing sth 继续做某事              14.mind doing sth 介意做某事

15. give up doing sth 放弃做某事

语法点

1.询问某人的健康问题及遇到麻烦的表达方法

2.情态动词should的用法

表示劝告与建议,也表义务与责任

3.不定代词的用法

4.反身代词的用法

精细解读

1. What’s the matter (with you)? 怎么了?出什么事了?

  What’s the trouble/ the problem / wrong with sb./ sth.?   What’s up?


2. I had a cold.我感冒了。

have a cold=catch a cold=have the flu               have a fever              have a cough_______

have a stomachache___________   have a ________牙疼      have a _________头疼

3. 身体部位+ache(疼痛)构成新的复合词

stomach+ache=stomachache    head+ache=headache    tooth+ache=toothache     

back+ache=backache后背痛

4.much too+             词,意为                ,

   too much+                  词,意为               ,

   too many + _________词,意为_____________。

5. enough【形容、副词】足够的/地,enough放在名前,形后。

good enough足够好,enough money=money money

6.lie down躺下, lie 躺,躺着v,过去式lay;现在分词lying

                  lie说谎v,过去式lied;现在分词lying. 谎言n,tell a lie

7. maybe “或许”,常用于句首,表示可能性,后加句子,去掉后句子完整。Maybe you are right.

may be,是情态动词+be的结构,意为“可能,也许”,后加名词、代词或形容词。He may be angry.

8.sound like+名词代词和从句:It sounds like you don’t know the truth.                 

                             It sounds like a good idea.

sound+形容词,“听起来,好像”,The music sounds nice.

9. need 需要,实义动词need+名词,需要某物;

   need to do sth.需要做某事,主语通常是人,表示人主动的动作:You need to listen carefully during class.

   need doing sth.主语通常是物,表示被动的动作:Your dirty clothes need   washing.

10. get off (the bus) 下(公交车) get on 上车

11. agree 同意,赞同;同意做某事                                   ,同意某人的看法、观点                                  。

12. trouble问题,麻烦 ;be in trouble                               ,make trouble                       ,have trouble (in) doing sth. =have difficulties (in) doing sth                                   。

13. right away=right now=at once,意为                                   。

14.【复习】 advice   [不可数名词]劝告,建议,向…征求意见                                      , give sb. advice on sth.就某事给某人建议; advise [动词] advise sb. to do sth.                                      advise sb. doing sth                             .

15. 【复习】exercise 动词意为                      ,可数时意为                             ,不可数时意为                              。

16. hurt 及物动词,使……疼痛,……受伤,He hurt his leg while exercising.

             不及物动词,……(部位)疼。   His leg hurt badly.

17. clean   【动词】                  ,clean the classroom                       ,【形容词】                      ,cleaner意为            。18. hit   (用手或器具)打;击打   The boy hit the dog with a stone.

      hit sb. on the head/ nose/ back打某人的头、鼻子、后背,on用在所打较硬的部位;

      hit sb. in the face/ eye/ stomach 打某人的脸、眼睛、肚子,in用在所打较软的部位。

19.be used to sth./ doing sth.习惯于、适应了……、做某事,强调状态;

      His grandpa was used to country life.

      Mary is not used to getting up early in the morning.

      get/ become used to sth./ doing sth. “变得习惯,逐渐适应……”强调过程、动作:

      It’s difficult for one to get used to another country’s habit.

20.【复习】free [形容词]空闲的free time;免费的the drink is for free;自由的I want to become a free bird.

   free【动词】使……解脱,得到自由He could not free his arm.

21.run out用完,用尽

  When his water run out, he knew that he would have to do something to save his own life.

sth. run out. 某物用尽了。    sb. run out of sth..人用尽了某物。He run out of all his money last night.

22. risk (sb.) to do sth. 冒险去做某事   take a risk=take risks 冒险

23. the importance of (doing) sth.(做)某事的重要性  

   We students should know the importance of (learning) English.

   importance   n.   重要(性),   important   adj.重要的,unimportant   adj.

24.decision   【名词】决定;抉择; decide 【动词】决定;抉择

    make a decision                make a decision to do sth.=                           。

25. be in control of …掌管,管理   The headmaster is in control of this new school.

   be in the control of ... 处于...的掌管之中

26.【复习】mind意为          ,mind doing sth.                          ,

    Would you mind my opening the window?

27.give up (doing) sth. 放弃(做)某事,give up (playing) computer games;

    give up后可接名词、代词和动词ing形式,也可不接,如   Never give up easily.

二、重点语法

【反身代词】英语中共有八个反身代词,在使用时应注意和它所指的相应的对象在人称、性别、数上保持一致。

数         人称第一人称第二人称第三人称

单数myself        herself   itself

复数yourselvesthemselves

【用法】

1. 可用作宾语,指的是宾语和主语表示同一个或同一些的人或事物。

如:Maria bought herself a scarf.                               

    We must look after ourselves very well.  

2. 可用作表语,指的是表语和主语表示同一个或同一些人或事物。

   如: She isn’t quite herself today.

3. 可用作主语或宾语的同位语,常用来加强语气。

如:She herself will fly to London tomorrow.                       

     I met the writer himself last week.  

4.   用在某些固定短语当中。

如: look after oneself / take care of oneself 照顾自己  

teach oneself sth./ learn sth. by oneself自学

enjoy oneself 玩得高兴,过得愉快   

help oneself to sth 请自用……(随便吃/喝些……).  

hurt oneself摔伤自己   

say to oneself自言自语  

leave sb. by oneself把某人单独留下   

buy oneself sth.给自己买……东西

introduce oneself 介绍……自己

【提醒】

1.   反身代词不能单独做主语,但可以做主语的同位语,起强调作用。 如:我自己能完成作业。

(误)Myself can finish my homework.   (正)   I myself can finish my homework. / I can finish my homework myself.

2.   反身代词表示“某人自己”不能表示“某人的东西”,因为它没有所有格的形式。表达“某人自己的(东西)”时,须要用one’s own.   

如:我用我自己的蜡笔画画。(误)I’m drawing with myself crayons.   (正)   I’m drawing with my own crayons.


【练习】

1. My classmate, Li Ming, made a card for _________ just now.

2. Bad luck! I cut _________ with a knife yesterday.

3. They tell us they can look after_________ very well.

4. My cat can find food by_________ .

5. Help __________to some beef, boys.

6. Jenny enjoyed_________ in the park yesterday afternoon.

7. We can finish our homework by_________ .

8. The blind girl lost_________ in the beautiful music.

9. Xiao Hui, can you introduce _________ to us ?

10. Bill wants to teach_________ French from now on.



Unit 2 I’ll help to clean the city parks

短语归纳

1.clean up 打扫干净       2.cheer up (使)变得更高兴;振奋起来

3.give out 分发           4. used to 曾经......;过去........

5.give away 赠送;捐赠    6.set up 建立;设立

7.make a difference        8.come up with 想出

9.put off 推迟             10.put up 张贴

11.call up 打电话给        12.help out 帮助.....摆脱困难

13.care for 照顾;照看     14.give up 放弃

15.try out for 参加选拔     16.come true 实现

17.run out of 用光         18.take after 与.....相像

19.fix up 修理            20.be similiar to 与......相似

用法归纳

1.need to do sth 需要做某事     2.make plan to do sth 制定计划做某事

3.ask sb (not ) to do sth 要求某人(不要)做某事

4.used to do sth 过去常常做某事   5.give up +时间+to do sth放弃时间做某事

6.get a feeling of.....有......感觉      7.decide to do sth 决定做某事

8.help sb (to)do sth 帮助某人做某事 9.make a difference to 对......产生影响

10.make it possible for sb to do sth 使得做某事对某人来说是可能的

拓展链接

动词+副词 短语

cheer up 使高兴起来   clean up 打扫干净   put up 张贴   mix up 修理

give away 赠送   give out 分发   give up 放弃 use up用光 get up 起床

hand in 上交 put off 推迟 pick up 捡起 think over 仔细思考 turn down 关小音量

set up 建立 set off 出发 look out 小心

动词+介词 短语

look after 照顾    belong to 属于 take after 与....相像 hear from 收到.....来信

hear of 听说 pay for 支付 wait for 等待

动词+副词+介词   短语

get out of 避免   come up with 想出 catch up with 追上赶上look forward to 期待盼望

go on with 继续

动词+名词   短语

have a rest 休息一下   take a walk 散步   make mistakes 犯错 have a try 试一下

take place 发生 tell a lie 撒谎 make a decision 做决定

动词+名词+介词 短语

have a look at   看一看 make a friend with 与.....交朋友 have a word with 与....交谈

have a drink of 喝一点 pay attention to 注意 make fun of 取笑

Be+形容词+介词 短语

be late for 迟到   be angry with 生气 be fond of 喜欢 be good at 擅长  

be good for 对...有好处 be short of 缺乏 be similiar to 与......相似

be strict with 对......严格要求   be pound of 骄傲 自豪

习题链接

1.-Tom failed the exam again

-Sorry to hear that. We should do something to           .

A.cheer him up   B.cheer on him C.cheer him on D.cheer uo him

2.The boys volunteer three hours          up the park near their school.

A.cleaning   B. to clean   C. cleaned    D. with cleaning

3.The woman in red          a teacher.She works in a hospital now.

A.used to be   B. is used to be C.was used to be D.is

4.The old man lives         ,but he doesn’t feel        .

A.alone;alone   B. lonely;lonely C.lonely;alone D. alone;lonely

5.Tina, I have something important          you.

A.telling   B.tells   C.tell   D.to tell

6.--The old man          all his money to a charity.

A.took away   B.put away C.went away D.gave away

7.We all feel      after hear of the      news.

A.excited;exciting B.exciting;exciting C.excited;exciting D.exciting;excited


Unit3 Could you please clean your room?

短语归纳

1.do the dishes 洗餐具      2.take out the trash 倒垃圾

3.go out 外出              4.stay out 呆在外面;不在家

5.help out 帮助做完某事    6.at least 至少

7.throw down扔下         8.all the time 一直;反复

9.in surprise 惊讶地       10.as soon as 一......就......

11.spend......on......在......花费(时间、金钱、精力)

12. in order to 为了   13.provide sth for sb 向某人提供某物

14.depend on 依赖;信赖   15.look after 照顾;照看

16.keep it clean and tidy 保持干净整洁   17.get into 进入

18.take care of 照顾   19.as a result 结果

用法归纳

1.finish doing sth 做完某事             2.want sb to do sth 想要某人做某事

3.try (not) to do sth 尽力(不)做某事   4.let sb do sth 让某人做某事

5.spend......(in) doing sth 花费......做某事

6.mind doing sth 介意做某事            7.learn to do sth 学习做某事

8.learn how to do sth 学习怎样做某事  

9.The +比较级,the+比较级   越......,就越.....

语法点

情态动词could 的用法

表示请求与准许,could 委婉有礼貌;

表示能力会不会,could只把过去表

表示怀疑不相信,could缓和情绪弱

推测可能用could, 虚拟语气也常用


Unit 4 why don’t you talk to your parents?

短语归纳

1.too much太多(修饰不可数名词)   2.hang out with sb 与某人闲逛

3.too many 太多(修饰可数名词复数) 4.get into a fight 争吵

5.call sb up 给某人打电话             6.talk about 谈论

7.look through 浏览                  8.give back 归还

9.be angry with sb 生某人的气         10.a big deal 重要的事情

11.work out 解决;算出               12.get on with sb 与某人和睦相处

13.communicate with sb 与某人交流    14.be worried about 担心.....

15.be afraid of 害怕.....                16.in front of在...前面

17.not... any more 不再...              18.so much/many 那么多

19.compete with sb 与某人竞争         20.cut out删除;删去

21.all kinds of 各种各样                22.compare....with.....比较;对比

23.in one’s opinion 依...看              24.turn down 调小

25 allow sb to do sth 允许某人做某事    26.why don’t you do sth?为什么不做某事呢?

27.why not do sth ?为什么不做某事呢?   28. find sb doing sth 发现某人在做某事

29.tell sb to do sth 告诉某人做某事      30. refuse to do sth 拒绝做某事

31.let sb do sth 让某人做某事            32. offer to do sth 主动提供做某事

33. not....until....直到....才...             34. it +adj+to do sth 做某事是.....的       

短语扩展

1.look through                        2. give away

   look after                              give back

   look for                                give up doing

   look like                               give in

   look at                                 give out

   look forword to doing

   look down upon

3.cut out

   cut down

   cut up

   cut off

语法点

1. could和should表建议的用法

2.连词until, so that 以及although 引导的状语从句


although

虽然,尽管,即使

引导让步状语从句。与but不能同用。

Although the sun is shinning,

it’s not warm today.


so that

以便于

引导目的状语从句,句中常伴有情态动词。

He is studying hard

so that he can pass the exam.


until

直到...

引导时间状语从句。用在否定句中构成not...until...,译为“直到...才...”

I stay here until he came back.

I didn’t leave until he came back.


一.用should 或者could 填空。

1.-________ I take the books out of the room?   - No, you can’t.

2.You ________ speak English in the English class.

3._________ you please help me with my Chinese?

4.If you got out at night, you ________ tell your parents.

5.I’m not sure if you __________ tell her the news.

6.I have a bad headache. What _________ I do?

二.从属连词练习。

1.I really enjoyed your lecture, ___________ there were some parts I didn’t quite understand.

A. because         B.unless         C. although     D. after

2. Mr Green speaks very loudly __________ all the people can hear him clearly.

A. so that          B. because         C.when        D.until

3. My little brother didn’t answer my question. ________, he asked me a question.

A.Although         B.But             C.Instead       D.So

4. I didn’t know the news _________ you told me. Thank you for telling me that.

A.unless             B.though         C.until         D.while


Unit5 what were you doing when the rainstorm came?

短语归纳

1.wait for 等待                     2.look for 寻找

3.go off (闹铃)发出声音            4.take a shower 洗澡

5.pick up 接电话;捡起             6.make sure 确信;务必

7.have fun 玩的开心                8.fall asleep入睡;睡觉

9.die down 逐渐变弱;逐渐消失      10.wake up 醒来;叫醒

11.in a mess 乱七八糟               12.in time of difficulty 在困难时期

13.take photos 照相                 14.turn on 打开

15.make one’s way 行走;前行       16.in silence 沉默地;无声地

17.take down摧毁;拆卸;记下       18.tell the truth 说实话

19.point out 指出                    20.go away 消失

21.as well 也                        21.call out 喊出

用法归纳

1.be busy doing sth/be busy with sth 忙于(做)某事

2.see sb /sth doing sth 看见某人或某物正在做某事

3.begin/start to do sth 开始做某事

4.try to do sth 努力去做某事

5.have trouble(in)doing sth做某事又困难

语法点

过去进行时

过去进行最好记,was/were+doing

特定时间有暗示,过去某刻某时段

肯定主语在句首,一般问句Be提前

否定句式更简单,Be后只把not添

Unit 6 An old man tried to move the mountains

短语归纳

1.work on 从事                     2.as soon as 一.......就......

3.take...away 拿走,带走            4.a good way to do sth 做某事的好方法

5.a little bit 一点儿                 6.once upon a time 从前

7.at other times 平时;有时         8.turn...into..变成

9.come out出现,出版,结果是     10.get married 结婚

11.fall in love with sb 爱上某人      12.open up打开

13.be born 出生                   14.think of ways 想出方法

15.all over the world全世界         16.make a plan to do sth 制定计划做某事

17.along the way 沿路              18.be lost 迷路

19.find out 找出                   20.learn about 了解

用法归纳

1.try to do sth   设法做某事                    2.finish doing sth 完成做某事

3.continue to do sth 继续做某事                4.make sb do sth 让某人做某事

5.keep doing sth 一直做某事                   6.instead of doing sth 代替做某事

7.be able to sth 能够做某事                   

8.It takes/took.....to do sth 花费...做某事         

9.have no time to do sth 没有时间做某事

10.become interested in doing sth 对做某事感兴趣

11.can’t stop doing sth 禁不住做某事

12.hear sb doing sth 听到某人正在做某事

13.lead sb to somewhere 引导某人到某处

14.leave sth at/in somewhere 把某物遗忘在某地   15.show sb sth 向某人展示某物

语法点

1.unless引导的条件状语从句

2.so...that...引导的结果状语从句

3.as soon as 引导的时间状语从句

相关阅读方法

上下文暗示法和文体归类法


Unit7 what’s the highest mountain in the world?

短语归纳

1.take in 吸入;吞入               2.in the face of 面对(问题;困难)

3.at birth 出生时                  4.as you can see 正如你所看到的

5.as far as I know 据我所知         6.up to 直到

7.prepare ...for...为...准备...          8.fall over 摔倒

9.die from 死于......                 10.cut down 砍到

11.take care of 照顾;照看           12.or so 大约;左右

13.in danger 处于危险之中

用法归纳

1.any other+名次单数    其他任何一个......

2.feel free to ask sb sth on ...... 就...随意问某人某事

3.one of the +形容词最高级+可数名词复数     最....的....之一

4.what’s the+形容词最高级+名词 in the world?世界上最....的....是什么?

5.protect....from/against....保护....使不受;防御

6.succeed in doing sth 成功做成某事

7.teach sb about sth 教某人有关.....内容

8.send sb to do sth 派某人去做某事

9.There be sb/sth doing.....有某人/物正在做某事

语法点

1.数词   hundred,thousand,million,billion 的用法

2.形容词和副词的比较级和最高级用法

比较级变化规则

比较等级要变化,一般词尾加-er

词尾若有哑音e,直接加r就可以

一辅重读闭音节,辅音字母要双写

辅音字母加y结尾,要把y改i加er

相关阅读方法

固定搭配


Unit8 Have you read Treasure Island yet?

短语归纳

1.be full of 充满                         2.grow up 长大

3.put...down...                           4.at least 至少

5.hurry up赶快                          6.bring back to sw 带回到某地

7.not long after that 之后不久             8.more than 超出

9.in the middle of 在....中间               10.fight over 与....争吵;争斗

11.think about 考虑                       12.come to realize 逐渐意识到

13.ever since then 从那时起                14.a kind of 一种

15.such as 例如                           16.belong to 属于

17.find out 找出;查出                     18.at the end of the day 在一天结束的时候

19.be famous for 因为...而出名               20.the mark of....   .....的印痕

21.leave behind 遗忘;留下                  22.full of feeling 充满感情

23.the importance of money and success 金钱和成功的重要性

用法归纳

1.finish doing sth   完成做某事                 2.arrive at/in sw 到达某地

3.learn to do sth 学习做某事                   4.see sb doing sth 看到某人正在做某事


5.name sb sth 给某人取名为.......                6.teach sb sth 教某人某事

7.use sth to do 用某物做某事                    8.love to do/doing sth 喜欢做某事

9.can’t wait to do sth 迫不及待做某事            10.be kind to sb 对某人友好

11.hope to do sth 希望做某事                    12.have time to do sth 有时间做某事

13have nothing to do 没什么事情可做

语法点

现在完成时

相关阅读方法

逻辑推理法


Unit9 Have you ever been to a museum?

短语归纳

1.have a great time 玩的开心                      2.put up 搭建;支起

3.in such a rapid way 用如此快速的方式            4.be able to do sth 能够做某事

5.a couple of 少数;几个                          6.take a ride 兜风

7.on the other hand 一方面                        8.more than多于;超过

9.three quarters 四分之三                         10.whether...or... 不管...还是...

11.wake up 醒来                                  12.all year round 一年到头,终年

13.close to 靠进                                 

用法归纳

1.a great way to do sth 一个做某事的好方法    2.watch sb to do sth 观看某人做了某事

3.It’s un believable that....很难相信......        4.encourage sb to do sth 鼓励某人做某事

5.have problem (in)doing sth 做某事很费劲   6.As...as.. 和...一样   

7.the best time to do sth 做某事的最佳时间    8.choose to do sth 选择做某事

9.tell sb to do sth 告诉某人做某事   

语法点

现在完成时

区分:have been to 和have gone to

相关阅读方法

前后意义照应法


Unit10 I’v had this bike for three years

短语归纳

1.haw long 多长,多长时间                   2.have a yard sale 举行庭院拍卖会

3.give away 捐赠;赠送                      4.not.....anymore 不再....

5.welcome to ...欢迎到....                      6.check out 察看;观察

7.clear out 收拾,整理                       8.at first 起初

9.no longer 不再;不复                      10.as for ...至于.....

11.a train and railway set 一套轨道火车        12.to be honest 说实在的

13.search for 寻找                           14.across from 在.....对面

15.according to依据;按照                   16.In one’s opinion 依...看

17.in order to 为了

用法归纳

1.It’s+adj(+for sb)+to do sth (对某人来说)做某事是......

2.decide to do sth 决定做某事

3.have been in+地点 在某处待了多久

5.hope to do sth 希望做某事

7.one of+the +形容词最高级+可数名词复数+V单数   最....的...之一是....

8.used to do sth 过去常常做某事   

9.need to do sth 需要做某事

语法点

现在完成时

1.since 和for 引导状语的区别

2.延续性动词和瞬间动词

瞬间动词转为为延续动词表

Borrow-keep   buy-have   catch a cold-have a cold   put on-wear   get to know-know

Get to sleep-sleep   begin/start-be on   go out-be out   get to /arrive/reach-be(in)

Die-be dead   open-be open   leave-be away   finish-be over   fall ill-be ill

Join-be in/be a member of   fall asleep-be asleep   make friends-be friends  

Come/go-be+相应的介词 close-be close   go to bed-be in bed   get up-be up

相关阅读方法

主旨大意理解法

全书语法大归纳

1.反身代词

2.情态动词should和could的用法

3.过去进行时

4.现在完成时

5.动词不定式

6.状语从句


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